Friday, August 14, 2009

Hawaii history

Hawaii history

First inhabitants Native Polynesians lived on the Hawaiian archipelago long before the first arrival of Europeans. The current native Hawaiians are descendants of Polynesians who arrived in the region a few thousand years, from other islands in the south of Hiva. They arrived about 400 A. D. Another Polynesian group, coming from Tahiti, arrived in the Hawaiian archipelago around 700 AD This brought a different culture, drums, plants, a different religion and other leaders. Before the arrival of the first Europeans in 1778, the natives of Hawaii lived in a highly organized and self-sufficient, based on the leasing of communal land, possessing a sophisticated language, culture and religion.
Until 1900 
Location of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. 

Kamehameha, the unifier of the Hawaiian Islands that formed the Kingdom of Hawaii. One of the first European explorers landed on the Hawaiian was the British explorer James Cook on January 18, 1778. In the sixteenth century the Hawaiian islands were sighted by a Portuguese navigator in the service of Castile. However, is that Cook is credited with the discovery of the archipelago to have been the first to officially register the discovery, and the first to provide the geographic coordinates. Cook named the archipelago the Sandwich Islands in honor of the Duke of Sandwich, a British lord, a name that is still used in some atlases. 

Thanks to the discovery and geographical position of the Hawaiian archipelago, this has become a frequent port of call for European vessels making long transpacific travel. Diseases caused by microbes carried by European sailors and with which the locals had never had contact, killed tens of thousands of native Polynesians in the region throughout the nineteenth century. Before the arrival of Europeans to the Hawaiian archipelago was fragmented into a number of tribes governed by an Indian chief.Some islands were ruled by a single tribe, while others were occupied by different tribes. These Polynesian tribes fought among themselves usually after the death of a chief. In 1782, an indigenous leader, Kamehameha began a long war that would last 13 years, against other leaders of the region and other islands.Aided by modern weapons, marketed with browsers and European and American traders who used the island as a stopover on their journeys, Kamehameha united the whole archipelago, except for the islands of Ni'ihau Kaua'ie in 1795.Kamehameha led two raids against the islands in 1796 and 1803, which failed because of a rebellion and an epidemic, respectively. Meanwhile, Kamehameha instituted a system of political administration of government based on Western standards.Kamehameha established a monarchy in Hawaii, and appropriated all the land of the archipelago, giving lots of land to rural households. About fifteen years later, in 1810, Ni'ihau Kaua'ie agreed to join the peaceful kingdom of Kamehameha. The Kamehameha dynasty ruled the island until 1872. Throughout the nineteenth century, Hawaii's economy prospered, with sales of high quality wood to China until the 1830s, with the sale of drinking water and supplies to ships making trips in the Pacific since the 1820s, with the sale of sugar cane since 1830, and pineapples from the 1880s onwards. The son of Kamehameha, Kamehameha II, became the monarch of the Hawaiian archipelago in 1819, after the death of his father.Kamehameha II abolished the Hawaiian practice of religion in public places, while allowing the practice in private places. In 1820, the U.S. government sent a group of white Protestant missionaries and teachers, which eventually convert most of Hawaii's population to Protestantism. They also created a written form to the Hawaiian language and founded the first schools in Hawaii.
Spanish Roman Catholic missionaries and French first landed in 1827. However, Catholics were not initially well-received by the native Hawaiians, who then were already mostly Protestants. In 1831, the Hawaiians have forced the small Christian population of European descent to leave the archipelago, while Christians of Hawaiian were mostly arrested. Five years later, in 1836, a French frigate blocked the port of Honolulu, Kamehameha II and forced to release the imprisoned Christians and allow freedom of religious expression.

Another son of Kamehameha, King Kamehameha (Kauikeaouli) III created Hawaii's first constitution in 1839, and a strong central government composed of executive, legislative and judicial branches. The U.S. government recognized Hawaii as an independent country. From the 1850s onwards, Hawaii began to receive hundreds of Asian immigrants per year. Initially, the Chinese were the main immigrants. Chinese immigration to the archipelago date of 1789, although this migration has been strongest from 1850 until the early twentieth century. Later, in the 1860s, large numbers of Polynesians settled in Hawaii. In the mid-1880s to the 1930s, large numbers of Japanese settled in Hawaii. The emigration of Portuguese origin, namely the Azores and Madeira, also felt very strongly. This community is dedicated to the cultivation of cane sugar, mixing vast cultural heritage with the customs of the people of Hawaii.
In 1874, became King Kalakaua of Hawaii. He promoted Hawaiian culture and customs among the native population. However, the population of Hawaii, especially farmers, disliked the political and economic ties that Kalakaua had with the government and American merchants. Among other acts, Kalakaua allowed the Americans to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor. Kalakaua was forced to create a new constitution in 1887 that limited its powers.When Kalakaua died, his sister, Lili'uokalani became queen of Hawaii. Lili'uokalani supported the Hawaiian people in their discontent with the new population of foreign or European descent.However, at the time, U.S. farmers and traders already controlled much of the economy of Hawaii. In 1894, a revolution in American troops and militant groups led by Americans, Germans and Britons, seized and deposed Hawaii Lili'uokalani. The U.S. invasion has caused great discontent among the population of Hawaii, which meant that the very time the American president, Grover Cleveland, who advise the Queen had his throne back. Both Lili'uokalani (who publicly refused to pardon the leaders of this revolution) and the main leaders of this revolution refused.Lili'uokalani was the last monarch of the archipelago. Also in 1894 a republic was established, with an American, Sanford Dole as president. The republic was abolished in 1898 when a part of the U.S. Congress established a joint resolution, which is specifically used internally as a means of acquiring the Kingdom of Hawaii as their new territory in August 1898. On June 14, 1900, Hawaii became a U.S. territory.
1900 - Present 

The strategic location of Hawaii in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, caused the U.S. government to begin construction of a primary naval base in Hawaii through a major expansion of port facilities at Pearl Harbor during the First World War. In 1927, two American lieutenants made the first flight between the contiguous United States and Hawaii. On December 7, 1941, the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japanese air force planes, because they already knew the Yankees intend to enter the war, to protect investments in Europe. This attack, which destroyed several ships, aircraft and military installations, as well as the deaths of more than 2,400 military personnel, has made the United States officially entered World War II on the Allied side. Martial law was declared in Hawaii.The state of martial law was repealed only in 1944. The large Japanese population of Hawaii has caused many Americans of European origin feared sabotage or espionage by Americans of Japanese descent living in the American West, including Hawaii.However, contrary to what happened on the continent (especially in California), Americans of Japanese ancestry were not required to move to camps. Since 1919, the population of Hawaii has required the elevation of the territory to the category of state. Several amendments were introduced in Congress, calling for the elevation of the status of the Hawaii State category. These amendments were initially rejected by Congress because of the large Asian population of Hawaii. So the Asians were seen by the Yankees as "inferior". The Second World War raised fears that many Asian Americans were not loyal to the U.S. if it went to war - largely because of the large Japanese population of Hawaii. However, many of Hawaii's Asian (including Japanese) participated actively in the war effort, and even more actively during the Korean War. It was not until 1957 that Congress passed an amendment authorizing the increase in the category of Hawaii State. On August 21, 1959, the then U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Hawaii amendment that raised the category of state.
Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state to join the Union of Hawaii's population would grow considerably during the coming decades, state and prospered economically.

Hawaii became a great military and tourist hub. Millions of tourists, mostly Americans, visit the state. Several hotels and tourist resorts were built in Hawaii over the past decades. Since the 1970s, part of the Hawaiian people began to support a movement that calls for greater autonomy from Hawaii in relation to the United States. This movement calls for self-sovereignty, without removal of the existing political and economic ties with the United States. In 1993, the then U.S. President Bill Clinton approved a resolution which the U.S. government officially apologized for the role it had played during the revolution of 1894.